LIS 5313 Web 2.0 Article
3. What’s in it for libraries?
4. Prominent uses in libraries
5. Library mini-case studies
6. Pros and cons of using Twitter
7. Tools that can extend Twitter
9. Libraries using Twitter
Twitter is best described as a free social networking and micro-blogging service where users have up to 140 characters to “tweet,” and get their message out. Signing up for an account is free, and users can “follow” or have “followers” to their posts. Posts can appear on the Twitter home page for all to see, or posts can be made private, sent only to groups of friends. As users update their tweets, they are displayed on the user’s profile page and delivered to other users (also known as “followers”) who have signed up to receive them. Good (2007a) best describes twitter as combining “the ease of instant messaging and SMS with the reach and scope of social networking services” (p.1).
Twitter.com (2008) describes their service as one “for friends, family, and co-workers to communicate and stay connected through the exchange of quick, frequent answers to one simple question: what are you doing?” Complimenting the functionality and mobility of instant messaging or SMS texting with the technology of blogging, Twitter has the ability to reach many individuals at once.
Since its creation, Twitter has inspired other microblogging sites (i.e., Jaiku, Yammer and the now-defunct Pownce) as well as many third-party applications, ultimately making the service easier to use as well as wildly more popular. While Twitter is quickly gaining recognition, much debate focuses on the value of the service. Some argue that it can open up the lines of communication, is a new wave of connecting with people and a great educational tool. Others argue that it is the latest 2.0 fad, contributes to the over-reliance on digital communication and contributes to a “tune on and tune out” (Edwards, 2008) society.
Because of the rapidly growing popularity of social networking sites and in an attempt to reach out to those participating, many libraries have created their own Twitter accounts. Although the original intent was to network with patrons and others within their community, many libraries are finding that Twitter has many other uses beyond the simple “what are you doing?” tweet. Twittering Libraries are not only making better (and wider) connections in their communities, they are also networking with other libraries and librarians, using it as an educational and professional development tool, advertising their programs and services and incorporating it within their blogs and websites.
Twitter creators Evan Williams, Jack Dorsey and Biz Stone launched the service in July, 2006 (Naone, 2008). Since then, it has grown immensely. Kroski (July, 2008) noted a recent Hitwise study shows that Twitter has grown eightfold over the past year; another study by Compete, a web analytics site, noted that traffic to the site doubled between February and April 2008 alone. Online marketing firm Hubspot did their own study (Sieple, 2008) and announced in their State of the Twittersphere Q4 2008 Marketing Report that 5,000 to 10,000 accounts are opened each day. Time (2007) named Twitter one of the 50 best applications in 2007 and ReadWriteWeb (2008) named it the number one application in 2008.
Twitter is gaining traction among organizations, businesses, professional bloggers and even politicians and the government. Zappos.com, Comcast.com and the airliner JetBlue are just a few of the many corporations and businesses using Twitter for public relations and customer service reasons, such as promoting sales and answering questions about products. Barack Obama, John McCain and Hillary Clinton are just a few of the many politicians who use Twitter, in addition to U.S. Government entities (see Peace Corps, USA.gov) and National Institute of Health. News organizations such as the BBC, MSNBC, CNN, New York Times, Wall Street Journal are additionally using Twitter to send out quick tweets of information. As Twitter catches on with more individuals and organizations, Libraries are naturally following course and incorporating it into their repertoire.
There are many reasons why libraries should incorporate Twitter into their social networking portfolio: it’s quick, easy, free, creates community, expands the reach of the library, makes the library more accessible, and is great for public relations. However, the statistics confirm that a library’s strong online presence is imperative as we continue to move forward in this increasingly digital world. In 2007, the OCLC (De Rosa, et al.) published an informative report that addressed the growing popularity of the internet and the changing demographics of those online. Amongst some of the most telling statistics:
- Search engine use has gone from 71% to 90%
- E-mail use has grown from 73% to 97%
- The use of blogs, a newly discovered communication medium for many in 2005, has grown from 16% to 46% in 18 months.
While these statistics rose at an alarming rate, the “unfortunate exception” is the decreased use of library Web sites, as usage has dropped from 2005 to 2007 (De Rosa, et al., 2007).
Such statistics show that the use of the internet is pervasive and truly reaches most of our society. This new demographic calls for libraries to reach out in new and innovative ways. Libraries can no longer wait for patrons to come to them; patrons are happy using internet search engines to find their information. Given the above statistics, many libraries are re-branding themselves beyond keepers of books; they are reaching out to users on the internet because the demographics are changing: “life online is moving beyond browsing and searching to interacting, creating, collaborating and community” (De Rosa, et al., 2007, pg.1-6).
On behalf of the Pew Internet and American Life Project, Horrigan, Raine and Fox did a study in 2001 on online communities. While the report is likely outdated by now, at that time, they discussed the increased demand and creation of online communities. For example, they noted that 28 million have used the Internet to deepen their ties to their local communities. Furthermore, they note, that those in these online communities are very lively and active – up to 23 million, they say are very active. Over the past seven years, it is likely these numbers have increased. Libraries are taking note of this, using social networking sites to connect with their communities. People in their communities are looking to connect, and Twitter is yet another opportunity to do so.
As we move into this new digital realm, many libraries are now starting to add Twitter to the already popular social software already widely adopted by many libraries (i.e., blogs, wikis and podcasts). They believe this is the right thing to do, considering the growing numbers of people spending time online and the popularity of social networking sites. In fact, the OCLC report (2007) noted that, at the time of publishing as of September 2007, five of the web information company Alexa‘s top ten global websites were categorized as “social networking” sites.
In interviews with nearly 65 libraries/librarians, frequent reasons for using Twitter were “reaching patrons where they are” and “being where the action is.” Twitter provides another quick and easy way to do this, allowing libraries to publicize themselves and become more accessible to their communities. Twitter has the potential to connect to library users in a new way. Not only does Twitter provide more access for patrons to their libraries, but it also provides countless opportunities for libraries and librarians to make peer-to-peer connections beyond what their consortia or annual attendance at a conference might offer.
Twitter is becoming very popular with libraries as they seek to connect with and expand their customer base. Kroski (2008) notes that Twitter has become “so integral a tool” that several institutions post their Twitter updates on their library homepage. While no exact number of how many libraries use Twitter exists , a thorough search shows 100+ public, academic, special and even high school and middle school libraries using Twitter. In addition, many Library-affiliated Organizations (e.g., American Library Association’s Office of Intellectual Freedom, New York Public Library Association, Library Journal and Lib-Gig Jobs) are joining Twitter. Beyond the banal postings of “what are you doing?”, individuals and organizations are using Twitter to promote events, live-blog and share links, report live from events, for publishing and tracking news, engaging customers, providing customer service, and most importantly, building their brand. Some examples of how libraries are using Twitter include:
- For library announcements
- To post news such as special events, holiday hours, exhibits, new book arrivals
- Updated resources or reminders of important resources, instruction sessions and new reference services
- Using Twitter as another communication tool with patrons/clients
- As a reference service
- As a way to keep in touch with librarian friends and colleagues as well as a way to collaborate on projects
- As a way to stay on top of the latest technologies
- For customer service
- To send alerts about requested materials
- As a short newsletter
- As a public relations/marketing tool
- As a way to get and share information about conferences and other professional development opportunities (i.e., registration deadlines, speakers, accommodation information, webinars)
- Cataloging and tagging
- Internal updates
- For networking with other librarians, libraries, and library-affiliated organizations
Nebraska Library Commission
The Nebraska Library Commission uses Twitter to tweet latest reference questions that come through their Ask-a-Librarian service. The NLC was probably one of the first Libraries to use Twitter to keep track of reference questions, and over time, they have built a steady following. They do not tweet the answers to the questions asked of them, which, says their Government Information Services Director, “annoys some people…but we are getting a lot of followers, so it must be interesting to some folks!” (B. Goble, personal communication, November 24). By tweeting the questions asked of them, the NLC has generated interest as well as demonstrates their ability to assist a wide range of inquiries. Several members of the reference team have access to the Twitter account and add questions as they receive them.
West Palm Beach Library
The West Palm Beach Library uses their Twitter account for various purposes. Britta Krabill, the Adult Reference Librarian at WPBPL, organizes and runs the account and usually tweets during her reference shift (B. Krabill, personal communication, December 5, 2008). Much like the Nebraska Library Commission, Krabill tweets the questions she is asked. Krabill also provides commentary on various projects and updates she is working on, posts links to the Library calendar, and provides information about the Library blog and even reference articles she is reading. WPBPL has definitely found success through Twitter, as they have over 130 followers. Krabill notes that Twitter is “just one more way to connect with the community and let them know what we have to offer.”
Massachusetts Trial Court Libaries
The Massachusetts Trial Court Libraries uses Twitter as a way of communicating amongst colleagues who want to know every web page or database that has been changed or other internal news on what the web that the Electronic Resources Librarian is up to. The tweets are public, the Electronic Librarian says, because there is nothing private in the content. However, it isn’t primarily a method used to share news with the general public (they have a blog for that) (M. Hayden, personal communication, December 1, 2008).
Waubonsee Community College Todd Library
In a posting in Michael Stephen’s blog, Tame the Web, he highlights Waubonsee Community College Todd Library’s innovative use of Twitter. WCCTL’s Technology Coordinator, John Wohlers, has used Twitter to enhance their webpage and catalog. Using the Twitter API, Wohlers has embedded Twitter into their webpage under each Waubonsee staff member’s bio. As each staff member updates their personal Twitter profile, their updates show up in their bio. In addition, Wohlers created a Twitter feed for the library, and then incorporated it into the library’s SIRSI Unicorn system and automatically tweets once an hour if a book on the new book shelf gets checked out. The account is also tied into their wordpress blog as well as into the library’s room scheduling program so the library tweets when Library instruction is coming up. At the end of the night, the library automatically tweets about how much paper was used in the electronic research area – even modified to mention how many miles of paper were consumed!) Lastly, Wohlers added Twitter into each record in the catalog. Patrons can click on the Twitter icon and up pops a menu where they can log into Twitter and send a tweet with a link to the catalog record. While it is too early to note the success of this use of Twitter, Wohlers notes that “this gives us more exposure and allows us to communicate with our patrons on their terms” (J. Wohlers, personal communication, November 26, 2008).
Grand Rapids Public Library
The GRPL‘s mission statement is “connecting people to the transforming power of knowledge.” By keeping their mission statement in mind, GRPL uses Twitter not only for the usual library announcements, information about programs and books, but they are having great success with directly interacting with their community. At this time, the GRPL has 355 followers and engages directly with the community via “@” messages and direct messages. A main reason why the GRPL has so many followers is that Asante Cain, the Reference Librarian at the GRPL that organizes, administers and tweets from their Twitter account, actively tries to find people in the community to connect with.
“I use Twitter’s search feature to locate people who are in the Grand Rapids area who tweet certain keywords. Words like “library,” “GRPL,” “reading,” “book,” and “Evergreen” which is the name of our new catalog. Once you do the search you can create RSS feeds that are updated whenever someone mentions the words. I then subscribe to the RSS feeds using Google Reader to periodically find new people, insert the library into conversations, and see what people are saying about the library.”
Furthermore, Cain notes that it is important for libraries to “be where our patrons are spending their time” (A. Cain, personal communication, December 6, 2008). Understanding that many of their patrons spend hours each day on social networking sites and texting from their cell phones, then the GRPL can connect with these individuals by meeting them in the same place. Twitter is yet another application that allows the GRPL to connect on these terms.
ALA 2008, IDEA 2008 and ILI 2008 – Conference notes/following
Many Librarians mentioned that the emergence of Twitter created an innovative way for them to share and collaborate on notes and information shared at Conferences. Use of the hashtag (#) is how librarians were able to post tweets on the same subject. Attendees posted comments about conference presentations and happenings, photos, and urls to presentation slides, podcasts, videos and blog posts. With the capability of instant messenging/SMS texting, conference attendees can even microblog live during presentations – in fact many of them do – and send tweets out to all their followers, text-by-text. Stephens also highlights an example of this in his ALA Annual Tweet Report (2008) and Kemper (2008) highlights his experience at ILI 2008 in a posting on his blog. Emily Rimland, Information Literacy Librarian at Pennsylvania State University Library, says that she especially likes Twitter for conferences – whether she is attending or not – as she enjoys seeing what her friends are tweeting about. If she is unable to attend a conference, reading her friends’ tweets is “a way to virtually attend” (E. Rimland, personal communication, November 24, 2008).
Some libraries and librarians are still hesitant about incorporating Twitter into their library’s online presence. In the current discussion, there are many pros and cons to wade through before deciding if Twitter can be a valuable addition or not.
On the whole, many libraries believe that Twitter has much to offer: Twitter is easy, fun, free to use, is a great marketing and public relations tool, allows for collaboration amongst staff and community, provides opportunities for professional developing and networking, has strength in its brevity, and allows libraries to meet many of their patrons “where they’re at.”
Efficiency. Twitter is powerful in its ability to efficiently get the word out via a whole range of communications. The Library doesn’t have to memorize all their patrons’ contact information. Patrons that are interested can subscribe to the library’s Twitter feeds and get the information on the web or on their phone. Libraries can reach a massive amount of people in little time (and for free).
Marketing/Public Relations. Twitter is an excellent way for libraries to grow their online presence and profile. Rowse (2008) notes that using Twitter reinforces the Library “brand,” promotes Library content, and extends the Library’s audience by finding new users/patrons/readers. By using a third party application like rss2Twitter, Libraries can drive traffic to their website or blog.
Brevity. Using 140 characters or less to write a post is a quick way to get the message out. It forces users to be brief and to the point, thus creating another way to communicate effectively. The short tweets are effective for concise messages and news items or links to longer messages and news items.
Collaboration. Librarians can use Twitter to collaborate with other librarians. For example, Steve Francouer (2008) notes that librarians at the reference desk can get help from other librarians who are logged on. Library staff can use Twitter within and amongst themselves.
Active application. Good (2007b) describes Twitter as an “always on micro publishing” tool. Users can send and receive tweets in a variety of ways and third-party applications make it easy to quickly send out information from blogs, websites and other RSS feeds. Middlebrook (2008) notes that, unlike blogs, Twitter is a real-time broadcasting medium.
Networking. Libraries can use Twitter to network with other Libraries, Librarians, bloggers and patrons. In doing this, they not only market their services, but they provide user-centered information. Furthermore, they create a community with the constant updates. Kroski (2007) notes that Twitter is a great way for librarians to connect at conferences and/or as a way to stay engaged with the library community at large.
Customer Service. Twitter provides Libraries the opportunity to have another way to provide customer service, and increase and open the lines of communication. Twitter can be used for patrons to provide information about what they really think about the library.
Cost. Although there is the cost of staff time (which really isn’t that much), Twitter is free to use. Libraries can avoid using expensive software or hardware to communicate with their constituents. For patrons that have unlimited texting and for those that can access Twitter accounts through the internet, the cost is low for them as well.
Accessible, Easy to Use. Not only is it free, it is easy to sign up on the web and easy to use, whether one uses it on the web, via browser, email, instant messaging clients or the phone or through a third party application.
Open API (application programming interface). Twitter publishes an API so applications are regularly being developed. These creative applications build upon Twitter, thus consistently improving its reach and type of service.
Forward-thinking. Several librarians note that using Twitter is positive in that it shows they are forward-thinking in using the technology. “It allows us to demonstrate a familiarity with web 2.0 applications, which I hope makes us look more relevant to younger patrons.” (C. Perry, personal communication, December 4, 2008).
Instant Information. Twitter is “always-on.” Jeff Scott, Director from Casa Grande Library, notes that those who use Twitter (and follow their library), have an advantage over others because they get immediate information about the library (i.e., when a hot book or DVD is released or available) (J. Scott, personal communication, November 24, 2008).
While most libraries say there are few negatives to using Twitter, they do share some problems with the service: its brevity, the fact it hasn’t caught on with patrons quite yet, it’s another thing to update, fellow staff members are hesitant to use it, and the fact that it can be a time-waster. A few librarians mentioned technological problems as well.
Brevity. Some librarians note it is difficult to keep their announcements brief and had to repackage messages to fit within the 140-character limit keystroke.
Lack of Support or Interest From Colleagues. Despite the ease of use of Twitter, not all librarians, libraries and administrative staff have warmed up to it yet. Some librarians are hesitant to try the service or are already overworked and not open to adding another thing to monitor on their plate. One librarian said, “Some of us in the office enjoy it, but the rest of the office doesn’t quite embrace it – thus when only two people are tweeting, it’s pretty limited to what she and I are specifically involved with” (K. Beeson, personal communication, December 4, 2008).
Technological Problems. While Twitter hasn’t had many
technological problems recently, there was a time where the famous “Fail Whale”  was a very familiar sight to see on the website. One library mentioned that recent lapses or delays in service made Twitter unreliable for them. (When using Twitter for announcements regarding climatic weather closings, the need for a reliable announcement and emergency service was especially important). There was a period of time when Twitter crashed often due to the increased overload on their servers. Early on, the addition of many third-party applications that enhance Twitter’s service tapped its servers, causing crashes and delays (Noane, 2008).
Select Audience. Twitter only reaches a select audience of tech-savvy patrons. Many librarians note that because Twitter hasn’t caught on yet with many of their patrons and clientele, their library’s reach with Twitter is limited. (This may be a challenge depending on a Library’s location. A library that is in a larger city will likely have a more tech-savvy clientele that they can connect with through Twitter. Another library, for example, that serves a high population of Amish will probably not rely as heavily on Twitter to connect with their clientele.) Furthermore, many libraries are finding that those they’re connecting with are other libraries and librarians who are outside their community. David Lee King (2008) argues that libraries should stop making these connections with one another and put energy into “friending” and following people within their own community.
Yet Another Thing to Update. Remembering to do updates is a difficulty noted by some, especially when the librarian has many other duties to tend to while at work. Many of the libraries using Twitter also have blogs, Facebook/MySpace pages, and the website to continually update, thus making Twitter yet an additional responsibility to an already full workday.
Time Waster/Not Necessary. Some librarians find Twitter too intrusive and time consuming and have other programs (i.e., Messenger IM between staff and Meebo for patrons) that serve their purposes better for communication.
There are many tools and third party applications that extend the reach and ability of Twitter and new tools are created every day. Many of the applications below not only make Twitter more accessible and easy to use in a variety of ways, but expand Twitter’s capabilities for communication, analyzing of statistics, and usage of an educational tool. Greene (2007) notes that “crucial to Twitter’s popularity was the release of its application programming interface, or API, which allows outside programmers to build applications that plug into the company’s information infrastructure. Once the API was available, geeks everywhere started to create innovative Twitter tools” (p.49). Amongst the libraries I interviewed, the applications most used by the libraries were:
- Applications through Blogger and WordPress
- Natsulion: Opensource Twitter client for Mac, Windows or Linux.
- Ping.fm: Updates all your social networks at once.
- Spaz: Opensource Twitter client for Mac, Windows or Linux.
- TweetDeck: Adobe AIR desktop app takes twitter feeds & breaks them into more manageable bits of info.
- TweetLater: Boasted as “productivity tools for busy Tweeple”
- Twhirl: A desktop client built on Adobe AIR that allows users to sign into multiple Twitter and Friend-feed accounts.
- Twitpic: Shares photos on Twitter.
- TwitterFeed: Feeds blog postings straight to your Twitter feed.
- TwitterFox: A Firefox plug-in that alerts you to friends’ updates.
- Twitterific: A Twitter widget for Mac OX. No browser necessary.
- TwitterMail: Sends your friends’ tweets to your email inbox.
- TwitterLocal: Will generate an RSS feed of tweets from a particular geographic area.
- Twittersearch: Allows users to search real-time in Twitter. Advanced search capabilities available.
- Twuffer: Allows coordination of calendar with Twitter account
In response to pervasive internet use among constituents, libraries have branched out to use social networking sites such as Twitter as a way to reach patrons where they are at. With over 65 librarians reporting about Twitter use at their libraries, the overwhelming response is positive for Twitter, even though the jury is still out as to whether libraries are reaching their patrons at a statistically high enough rate for it to be a success. Despite the unknowns, librarians can be at ease with the cost-effect ratio: after all, Twitter is free, it is very easy and quick to use, and, with third-party applications, tweets can be automatically generated (thus removing any possible work required to maintain it).
This is not an all-inclusive list, but what I found in preliminary searches. For this report, I emailed my survey to every one of these libraries. Over 65 responded.
- Abington County Library
- ACLA Libraries (Allegheny County, PA)
- Anderson Public Library
- Akron-Summit County Public Library
- Ada Library
- Austin Public Library
- Bluffton Library
- Birmingham Public Library
- Brooklyn Public Library
- Boise State University Library
- Camas Public Library (WA)
- City of Casa Grande Public Library
- Chili Public Library – Teens (NY)
- Cleveland Public Library
- CMRLS County Librares
- Danbury Public Library
- Denver Public Library – eVolver DPL Teens
- Dickison College Waidner Spahr Library
- Devereaux Library, South Dakota School of Mines
- Elmhurst College A.C. Beuhler Library
- Fox River Grove Memorial Library
- Free Library of Philadelphia
- Grand Rapids Public Library
- Greenefield Public Library
- Hennepin County Library
- Hillside Junior High School Library
- Hinsdale Public Library
- Houston Community College Library
- Homewood Public Library
- Houston Public Library
- Hubbell Library
- Kansas City Public Library
- Lapeer District Library
- Lee County Library
- Lester Public Library
- Lunar & Planetary Institute Library
- Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library
- Massachusettes Trial Law Libraries
- Massillon Public Library
- Maui Community College Library
- Michigan State University Libraries
- Missouri Regional River Library
- Monroe County Library (NY)
- Oklahoma State University Library
- Palm Beach County Library
- NS Library System
- National Press Club Library
- Nebraska Library Commission
- Northeastern Illinois University Library
- Randolf Public Library
- Rapid City Public Library
- Reed Library
- Rocky River Public Library
- Santa Fe Public Library
- Scranton Albright Memorial Library
- Pasadena City College Shatford Library
- Skyline High School Library
- Stillwater Library
- Tipp City Library
- Tonganoxie Public Library (KS)
- Post University Traurig Library
- Providence Public Library
- Pennsylvania State University Libraries
- Roanoke County Library
- Santa Barbara City College Luria Library
- Skokie Public Library
- South Salem Lyon Library
- Stanford Graduate School of Business Jackson Library
- Takoma Public Library (MD)
- University of Alabama, Huntsville
- University of Alabama Lister Hill Library
- University of California, San Fransisco Library
- University of Colorado, Boulder, Libraries
- University of Illinois Undergraduate Library
- University of Mary Washington CGPS Library
- University of Maryland Ask us Now
- University of Michigan Dentistry Library
- University of Minnesota Science & Engineering Walter Library
- University of Nebraska Library Computers
- University of Nevada Architecture Studies Library
- University of Notre Dame Library (London)
- University of North Carolina, Wilmington
- University of Wisconsin-Whitewater Library
- Waldo Public Library (KS)
- Waltham Public Library
- Waubonsee Community College Library
- Westerville Public Library (OH)
- Westlake Porter Public Library
- West Palm Beach Public Library
- Westport Public Library
- West Springfield Public Library
- Windward Community College Library (HI)
- Yale Law Library
- Yale Sciences Library
- Zion-Benton Public Library
Library-related Organizations using Twitter
- ALA Privacy
- ALA RUSA
- ALA ASCLA
- ALSC Blog
- Association of Library Services for Children
- Elsevier Library Connect
- Lib-gig Jobs
- Library Journal
- Library Journal Book Review
- LIS News
- New York Library Association
- Reading Rockets
- School Library Journal
- Web Junction
- Young Adult Library Services Association
- ↑ Pownce technology was purchased by Six Apart and will be closing down as of December 15, 2008. For more information, see Goodbye Pownce, Hello Six Apart
- ↑ My survey consisted of 15 questions. It was emailed to 90 libraries and 65 responded.
- ↑ JetBlue uses Twitter for real time conversation.
- ↑ For more information on government entities on Twitter, please see The Government’s A-Twitter, Take 2: It’s Official
- ↑ For more information about a library’s use of Twitter for internal communication that is kept private, see Mick Jacobsen’s post regarding the Skokie Public Library’s use at Twitter for Internal Communication: A TTW Guest Post by Mick Jacobsen
- ↑ In the microblogging community, hashtags are are a community-driven convention for adding additional context and metadata to tweets. When microbloggers are discussing the same subject, they create a hashtag simply by prefixing a word with a hash symbol: #hashtag. For more information, see Hashtags.org
- ↑ When Twitter experiences down time or other technological problems, the “Fail Whale” picture appears. The Fail Whale has become an endearment in the Twitter community and even has its own fan club.
De Rosa, C., Cantrell, J., Havens, A., Hawk, J., & Jenkins, L. (2007). Sharing, privacy and trust in our networked world: A report to the OCLC membership. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/pdfs/sharing.pdf.
Edwards, C. (2008). Turn on, tune out. Engineering & Technology, 12, pp84-85. Francoeur, S. (2007, May 2). Reference Services and Twitter. Message posted to http://www.teachinglibrarian.org/weblog/2007/05/reference-services-and-twitter.html.
Good, R. (2007a). Mobile Instant Messaging Meets social networking: Twitter – a beginner’s guide, part 1. Retrieved October 27, 2007 from http://www.webjunction.org/community-first/articles/content/449889
Good, R. (2007b). Mobile instant messaging meets social networking: Twitter – a beginner’s guide, part 2. Retrieved October 28, 2007 from http://www.webjunction.org/community-first/articles/content/449937.
Greene, K. (November/December 2007). What is he doing? Technology Review, pp.44-51. Kemper, D. (2008, October 16). From Canada to London: How Twitter Opens (Conference) Doors. Message posted to Fhttp://www.teachinglibrarian.org/weblog/2007/05/reference-services-and-twitter.html
King, D. L. (November 7, 2008). Don’t Friend Me! Message posted to http://www.problogger.net/archives/2008/01/23/9-benefits-of-twitter-for-bloggers/.
Kroski, E. (July, 2008). All a Twitter. School Library Journal, 54(7), p.31-35. Middlebrook, C. (n.d.). The Big Juicy Twitter Guide. Retrieved October 28, 2008 from http://www.caroline-middlebrook.com/blog/twitter-guide/.
Naone, E. (September/October 2008). A brief history of microblogging. Technology Review, p26.
Horrigan, J. B., Raine, L. & Fox, S. (2001). Online Communities: Networks that nurture long-distance relationships and local ties. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Communities_Report.pdf.
ReadWriteWeb (2008, December 9). Top 10 Consumer Applications of 2008. Message posted to http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/top_10_consumer_apps_2008.php.
Rowse, D. (2008, January 23). Benefits of Twitter for Bloggers. Message posted to http://www.problogger.net/archives/2008/01/23/9-benefits-of-twitter-for-bloggers/.
Sieple, P. (2008, December 23). HubSpot Releases State of the Twittersphere Q4 2008 Marketing Report. Message posted to http://www.hubspot.com/company/news/bid/4467/HubSpot-Releases-State-of-the-Twittersphere-Q4-2008-Marketing-Report.
Stephens, M. (2008, July 15). The ALA Tweet Report. Message posted to http://www.alatechsource.org/blog/2008/07/the-ala-annual-tweet-report.html.
Stephens, M. (2008, November 25). Librarian, Library and Catalog Tweets Revealed! Message posted to http://tametheweb.com/2008/11/25/librarian-library-and-catalog-tweets-revealed/.
Time.com. (2007). 50 best websites. Retrieved October 27, 2008 from http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1633488_1633608_1633637,00.html.
Twitter.com. (2008). FAQ. Retrieved October 27, 2008 from http://help.twitter.com/index.php?pg=kb.page&id=26. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
The following resources provide helpful information for further reading.
General Information Bhatt, N. (2008). Guide to twitter etiquette and efficient use to achieve your goals. [Retrieved from http://www.bhatt.id.au/blogimg/twitter-guide.pdf http://www.bhatt.id.au/blogimg/twitter-guide.pdf].
Educause. (2007) 7 Things You Should Know About Twitter. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
Everything Twitter. (n.d.). Everything Twitter Blog. Retrieved from http://everythingtwitter.com/.
Rowse, D. (n.d.). Twitip: Twitter tips in 140 characters or more. Retrieved from http://www.twitip.com/.
Sukernek, W. (n.d.). Twittermaven. Retrieved from http://twittermaven.blogspot.com/.
For information on 3rd party applications:
Agarwal, A. (2008). Twitterguide: How to do things with Twitter. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
Rowse, D. (2008). Twitter Tools. Blog posts on http://www.twitip.com/tag/twitter-tools/.
Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2008, from the Libsuccess.org wiki: http://www.libsuccess.org/index.php?title=Twitter.
Web Tips. (2008, December 3). Twitter Tools. Message posted on http://wtips.blogspot.com/2007/04/twitter-tools.html.
Twitter and Academia
AcademicHack. (Wednesday, January 23). Twitter for Academia. Message posted to http://academhack.outsidethetext.com/home/2008/twitter-for-academia/
Web 2.0 Teaching Tools. Twitter tweets for education. Message posted to http://web20teach.blogspot.com/2007/08/twitter-tweets-for-higher-education.html.
Young, J. (January 28, 2008). A professor’s tips for using Twitter in the classroom. Retrieved October 28, 2008 from http://chronicle.com/wiredcampus/article/?id=2699
Twitter and Libraries
Jacobson, M. (2008, December 10). Twitter for Internal Communication. Message posted to http://tametheweb.com/category/micro-content-twitter-more/.
King, D. L. (March 10, 2007). Twitter explained for librarians, or 10 ways to use Twitter. Message posted to http://www.davidleeking.com/2007/03/10/twtter-explained-for-librarians-or-10-ways-to-use-twitter/
Laun, C. (May 27, 2008) Twitter for Librarians: the ultimate guide. Message posted to http://www.collegeathome.com/blog/2008/05/27/twitter-for-librarians-the-ultimate-guide/.
Murphy, J. (2008). Better Practices from the field. Micro-blogging for science and technology libraries. Originally appeared in Science and Technology Libraries, vol. 28. Scott, J. (2008). Blog posts tagged with Twitter. [Messages on http://gathernodust.blogspot.com/search/label/twitter.